The 'frame-and-panel' evolved as a more efficient use of material, and is typical of most panels in Chinese furniture, whether tabletop, door, or cabinet panel. The frame is joined with mitered, mortise-and-tenon joints. A groove is cut around the upper, inside edge of the frame, while the panel is shaped with a corresponding tongue around its outside edge.
This 'tongue-and-groove' system secures the panel within the frame without glue or nails and permits the panel to float within the frame to accommodate its slight expansion and contraction due to changes in humidity. Additionally, transverse braceswhose number depends on the length of the panelslide into shallow dovetail housings cut into the bottom of the panel, both supporting the thin panel and preventing its warping.